psych 201 exam

Question Answer
Donder’s criteria for thought a)simple detectionb) choice: c)go/no go:
Donders “subtractive method”, assumptions 1) That cognitive processes occur in discrete stages2) That only one stage/process may be operating at a time 3) That the addition of a stage in no way changes the other stages
Sternberg: addtive method if two factors are changed (if our two independent variables) both influence different stages of processing (say brightness influences stimulus encoding and key distance influences response execution) then we will find that these two factors are “additive
The Standard Deviation: Subtract the mean from each vaule. We now have a list of numbers that indicate how far away from the mean each of the raw values lie, or how much each individual value “deviates” from the mean.
The Normal Distribution: mean and the median have the same value
Signal Detection Theory: Signal detection refers to our ability to differentiate the times when we are presented with the combination of signal and noise from when we are just receiving noise.
EEG: electroencephalogram measures the summed electrical activity that is generated by pyramidal cells. Pyramidal cells are neurons in the cortex who’s axons run at right angles to the cortex surface. When these cells are active, they create small electrical fields.
ERP: Event Related Potentials: t is the presentation of something that happens at a definable point in time.
EPOCH a single EEG trace is called, an EPOCH, which just means a period of time
Things that “differ” in EEG: most studied “cognitive ERPs” is the N400 effect. It’s called the “N400 effect” because it’s negative, and it occurs 400 ms after the stimulus appears and it’s an effect because these values refer to a difference wave.
Source Estimations: Source estimations routines, What that means is that the N400 is thought to be related to the meaning of the words, the meaning of the last word was “unexpected” and the temporal lobes are thought to do a lot of processing about the meaning of things.
Oscillations: sync and de-syncronisation:
ERD, When these values get smaller, instead of an ERP we say this is ERD, which is just short for “Event Related Desynchronisation
ERS If the values had become “bigger” after the stimulus came on, then we would have ERS, or “Event Related Synchronization”.
limited capacity system The notion of a limited capacity system just means that we can not process all of the information that becomes available to our senses
buffer A buffer is simply the notion that information can be held in storage for a short period of time
Broadbent’s Filter model of Attention: 1. First, all information can be processed at the sensory level, so sensory registration does not have a “limited capacity”. 2. Information that is not selected by attention, stuff we’re ignoring, doesn’t get processed any further
Broadbent’s Filter model of Attention: flaws makes predictions unsupported. unattended information is not processed for meaning, or its physical characteristics beyond “something is there”. But, in dichotic listening tasks it was found that sometimes information on the unattended ear did get through
Treisman’s Attenuation Model of attention: modifications to Boradbent's model: 1 First, rather than completely filtering out the unattended information, suggested that the findings from breakthrough events demonstrate that the unattended information is only attenuated. So, the signal is weaker, but not reduced to zero so to speak.
Boradbent vs Treismans model: attention selecting information for processing. Unselected information (non-attended information) removed (Broadbent) or reduced (Triesman). Broadbent selection occurs early (physical cues) Triesman’s selection can vary from very early to very late.
Deutsch & Deutsch’s Late selection model: no limited capacity during processing and no weakening of unattended signals. All stimuli get processed including meaning. limited capacity aspect is the ability to then maintain the processed information around long enough to make a response.
“early selection models”. Broadbent and Triesman’s
“late selection model Deutsch & Deutsch’s model
speed-accuracy trade off the faster you are the less accurate you are
“informative cues”. These are things that tell the subject what to expect, in some way. A good example is an arrow. This tells the subject where to expect some stimulus (the target) to be presented.
“non-informative cue” and these are sort of like a “distraction” because they don’t actually provide any real information.
“cost plus benefits analysis” for attention the faster you go the lower the accuracy
Baddeley and Hitch’s model of “Working Memory” phonological loop , a visuo-spatial sketchpad , and the “central executive”.
The Phonological Loop: Repeating something out loud is a task that involves the phonological loop. So, if we tie up the phonological loop this way, this should interfere with recalling of verbal stimuli.
The Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad “visual cache”
The Central Executive the weakest link. It deals with things like decisions, strategy, and allocation of attention, for the phonological loop, episodic buffer, and the visuo-spatial sketchpad.
Depth of Processing (Craik and Lockhart). information that is processed in working memory at a “shallow” level will not get transferred into long term memory, it will not get encoded. if the information is processed to a “deep” level then it is more likely to be encoded into long term memory.
Episodic and Semantic memory Semantic memory is “about” things. For example, knowing that coffee is hot, Episodic memory is memory about ourselves and things we’ve done. So, remembering having coffee for breakfast this morning is remembering a specific event.
Declarative and Procedural Knowledge Declarative memory is the memory about things, and by definition it involves semantic and episodic events. Procedural memory is related to skills, like playing the piano, riding a bike, kicking a ball, etc.
Congenital Amusia Amusia refers to difficulty specifically with music and congenital just means the condition is thought to be present since birth as opposed to something that arises after a brain injury
d’ sensitivity index
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis Certain thoughts of an individual in one language cannot be understood by those who use another languageThe way people think is strongly affected by their native language(s)
Evidence for the Whorfian hypothesis Berinmo have only five basic colour terms (do not distinguish blue & green) whereas English regard the two greens as similarPresented 3 coloured stimuli – choose two that are most similar
Orthography (spelling the words)
Phonology “Sounding out the words”Think about novice readers such as young children versus adult silent readers
Strong phonological model A phonological representation is a necessary product of processing printed words, the explicit pronunciation of phonological structure is not required. the model would predict that phonological processing will be mandatoryperhaps automatic
Predictions based on automatic (strong) phonological coding Phonological coding will occur even when it hampers performanceSome phonological coding occurs rapidly when a word is presented visually (stop signs in other languges)
Phonological neighbourhood Neighbours differ in only one phonemegate – neighbours = bait, get, got, gape
Several models have been proposed to explain visual word processing 1. Interactive Activation2. Dual Route Cascaded3. Connectionist triangle models
Interactive activation model of visual word recognition Activated words increase level of activation for words that match all letters
Word superiority effect The word superiority effect is defined by the fact that performance is better when letter string forms a word than notThus information about the whole word can facilitate identification of the letters of that word
Orthographic neighbours Reading what you expect not what you see
Interactive activation model: Evaluation: Strengths Influential example of how a connectionist processing system can be applied to visual word recognitionIt accounts for:Word superiority effectPseudoword superiority effect
Interactive activation model: Evaluation: Limitations No account of the role of meaningDoes not consider phonological processingToo much importance on letter order (cannot explain reading words with jumbled letters)Does not account for longer words
The dual-route cascade model (DRC) described by Coltheart et al (2001) has been used to study reading aloud and silent reading two routes start with orthographic analysis (identifying and grouping letters on the page into words Different processes when we read words vs. non-words (pronounceable pseudowords) Non-words are read using Route 1 (non-lexical, phonological) all routes U
Distributed connectionist approach Also known as the triangle model Orthography (spelling) + Semantics (meaning) + Phonology (sound)
Connectionist triangle: evaluation: Strengths Evidence supports notion that orthographic, semantic and phonological systems are used in parallelGreater emphasis on involvement of semantics in reading aloudIncludes an explicit learning mechanism
Connectionist triangle: evaluation: Limitations Focus on simple monosyllabic words (as for other models)Does not explain all cases of dyslexia (e.g. completely intact performance on phonological tasks but with impaired semantic access)Nature of semantic processing not fully explained
Main processes involved in speech perception and comprehension 1 Decoding complex acoustic signal into phonetic segments (extract discrete elements)2 Identify syllables and words3 Word recognition4 Comprehension5 Integrate into context
FACTORS THAT makes speach perception difficult. 1. Individual differences between and within speakers2. Rapid speech production (50-60 phonemes per second)3. Adverse listening conditions (e.g. noise, reverberation)4. Segmentation problem5. Co-articulation
Mattys et al.’s (2005) hierarchical approach to speech segmentation Categorical speech perception Context (top down) effects
Theories of spoken word recognition Motor theory (Liberman et al., 1967)TRACE model (McClelland & Elman, 1986; McClelland, 1991)Cohort model (Marslen-Wilson & Tyler, 1980; Marslen-Wilson, 1990, 1994)Three-route framework (Ellis & Young, 1988)
Motor Theory Listeners mimic the articulatory movements of speakers, produces a motor signal, this facilitates speech perception
Evidence that motor areas facilitate phoneme processing during speech perception TMS to premotor cortex, listeners mimic speechDisrupted phonemic but not semantic task
TRACE model Several sources of information combine interactively to achieve spoken word recognitionAssumes interaction of both bottom-up and top-down processesThree levels (speech features, phonemes, words)
TRACE model: Key components: Speech feature nodes connected to…phoneme nodes connected to….word nodesNodes influence each other in excitatory or inhibitory manner to produce a pattern of activation (trace)Connections at the same level inhibitBottom up activation from word f
Cohort Model Words similar to what is heard are activated “word-initial cohort”Words eliminated if do not match further information such as semantic or other context Processing continues until all other possibilities are eliminated “recognition point” “uniqueness po
Three route model for processing spoken words Route 1: heard word activates meaning and spoken formRoute 2: meaning of heard words not activatedRoute 3: rules about converting heard word into spoken form
Garden-path model The simplest syntactic structure is chosen (using minimal attachment and late closure)The grammatical structure producing the fewest nodes (noun phrase, verb phrase) is preferred [minimal attachment]New words encountered in the sentence are attached t
Grice (1975) Common ground co-operativeness principlespeakers & listeners work together to ensure mutual understandingWhere there is a failure of communication between speaker and listener we rely on common ground to repair it
Event-indexing Model: Readers monitor five aspects 1 The protagonist2 Temporality3 Causality4 Spatiality5 Intentionality
Event-segmentation theory : Incremental updating of individual situational dimensionsGlobal updating of situational models
Speech production consists of four levels Semantic levelSyntactic levelMorphological level (morphemes)Phonological level (phonemes)
Broca’s Aphasia: nonfluent/motor aphasiaslow, halting speech (dysfluent)relatively preserved comprehensionnot necessarily damage to Broca’s Area
Wernicke’s Aphasia fluent/sensory aphasiafluent (or hyperfluent) speechpoor comprehension
Oversimplification? of brocas and wernickes aphasia 1 People with Broca’s aphasia may have damage to Wernicke’s area vice versa 2 Implies that brain-damaged people all have similar patterns of impairment 3 Several brain areas are involved in language processing and they’re interconnected in complex ways
Anomia An impaired ability to name objectsErrors based on meaningErrors based on phonologyAccording to WEAVER++ occurs at lemma selection
Speech as communication: Four maxims RelevanceQuantityQualityManner
Two kinds of thinking think rapidly, subconsciously, effortlessly, andintuitively (‘System 1’)think slowly, consciously, effortfully, anddeliberately (‘System 2’).
Typical properties: System 1 FastHigh capacityParallelNonconscious and autonomousBiased responsesContextualisedAssociativeDoes not require working memoryExperience-based decision-makingIndependent of cognitive ability
Typical properties: System 2 SlowCapacity limitedSerialConscious and deliberateRationalAbstractRule-basedRequires working memoryConsequential decision-makingCorrelated with cognitive ability

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