Pharmacology test 1

Question Answer
Regulates the development and sale of drugs FDA
Prevented the marketing of adulterated drugs require labeling to eliminate false or misleading claims 1906- pure food and drug act
Mandated tests for drug toxicity and provide a means for recall of drugs establish procedures for introducing new drugs gave FDA the power of enforcement 1938- federal food drug and cosmetic act
Tightened control of certain drugs specified drugs to be labeled may not be distributed without a prescription 1951- Durham-Humphrey amendment
Tightened control over the quality of drugs gave FDA regulatory power over the procedure of drug investigations stated that efficiency as well as safety of drugs had to be established 1962- Kefauver Harris act
Define drug abuse and classify drugs as to their potential for abuse provided strict controls over the distribution storage and use of these drugs 1970- controlled substance act
Provided incentives for the development of orphan drugs for treatment of rare diseases 1983- orphan drug act
Hi abuse potential and not accepted medical use (heroin, marijuana, LSD) Schedule 1
Hi abuse potential with severe dependence of liability narcotics, amphetamines, and barbiturates Schedule 2
Les abuse potential then schedule two drugs and moderate dependence liability none barbiturates sedatives, nonanphetemine stimulants, limited amounts of certain narcotics Schedule 3
Leta??s abuse potential then schedule three and limited dependence of liability some Sedatives, anti-anxiety agent, and non-narcotic analgesics Schedule 4
Limited abuse primarily small amounts of narcotics codine use as an anti-tussive or anti-diarrheal Schedule 5
Drugs that have been discovered that are not financially viable and therefore have not been adopted by any drug company Orphan drugs
Products that are available without prescription for self treatment of a variety of complaints OTC
Drugs no longer protected by patent and can be produced by companies other than the one that developed it Generic drugs
Brand and generic name, drug dose, expiration date, and special drug warnings.Some indicate route of administration Drug labels
Chemicals that are introduced into the body to bring about some sort of change Drugs
Plants, animals, in organic elements and synthetic preparations Drug sources
Studies test potential drugs on healthy human subjects Phase 1
Studies test potential drugs on patients who have the disease the drugs are designed to treat Phase 2
Studies test drugs in the clinical setting to determine any an anticipated effects or lack of effectiveness Phase 3
Continual evaluation, prescribers are obligated to report to the FDA any unexpected adverse effects. Phase 4
Hey drug must pass through animal testing testing on healthy humans selected testing on people with the disease been treated and then broadt testing on people with the disease being treated To be approved for marketing
What happens to a drug from the time it enters the body until it enters the circulating fluid intravenous administration causes it drug to directly answer the circulating blood bypassing the many complications of absorption from other rats Absorption
The movement of substances across a cell membrane against a concentration gradient this process requires the use of energy Active transport
Synthetic chemicals used to interfere with the functioning of foreign cell populations causing death this term is frequently used to refer to the drug therapy of neoplasms but it also refers to drug therapy affecting any foreign cell Chemotherapeutic agents
A phenomenon in which drugs given orally or carry directly to the liver after absorption where they may be largely in activated by liver enzymes before they can enter the general circulation oral drugs frequently are given in a higher dose is the drugs gi First pass effect
The time it takes for the amount of drug in the body to decreased to 1/2 of the peak level it previously achieved Half life
The study of the interactions between the chemical components of living systems and four and chemicals including drugs that enter living organisms the way a drug affects the body Pharmacodynamics
The study of genetically determined variations in the response to drugs Pharmacogenomics
The way the body deals with the drug including absorption distribution biotransformation an excretion Pharmacokinetics
Property of a chemotherapeutic agent that affects only systems found in foreign cells without affecting healthy human cellsPenicillin Selective toxicity
Reacts with certain chemicals to cause-and-effect with in the cell Receptor site
The amount of a drug that is needed to cause a therapeutic effect Critical concentration
Higher dose than usually used for a treatment Loading dose
Major process through which drugs are absorbed into the body occurs across a concentration gradient when there is a greater concentration of drug on one side of the cell membrane the drug will move through the membrane to the area of lower concentration Passive diffusion
The process by which drugs are changed into new less active chemicals Bio transformation
Liver and kidney functions Before starting a med regimen always check
Balance of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of the drug Concentration of a drug in the body is determined by
This occurs when the drug in the theater in direct contact in the stomach something is increase acid production speeding the breakdown of the drug molecule in preventing absorption and distribution of the drugs something is chemically react with certain d Drug- food interactions
Achieve a critical concentration of the drug in the body the critical concentration is the amount of the drug necessary to achieve the drugs therapeutic effects Goal of established dosing schedule
Furman Connecticuta??s pharmacodynamics and human factors that can change the drugs effectiveness age bodyweight Actual drug effects are determined by
Bone marrow depression caused by drug affects on the rapidly multiplying cells of the bone marrow lower than normal levels of blood components can be seen Blood dyscrasia
Allergy involves an anti-body that reacts with specific sites in the body to cause the release of chemicals including histamine that produce immediate reactionsHives, rash, difficulty breathing, increased bp,Treatment- epinephrine Anaphylactic reaction
Allergy involves antibodies that circulate in the blood and attack antigens on sale sites causing death of that sell this reaction is not immediate but may be seen over a few daysCheck CBC, liver function,, renal function Treatment- notify dr stop drug Cytotoxic reaction
Allergy involves antibodies that circulate in the blood and cause damage to various tissues by depositing in blood vessels this reaction make her up to one week or more after exposure to the drugItchy rash, high fever, swollen lymph nodes, painful joints Serum sickness
Reaction occur several hours after exposure and involves antibodies that are bound to specific white blood cellsRash hives ( similar to poison ivy) swollen joints Notify dr discontinue med topical corticosteroids or antihistamines Delayed allergic reaction
Symptoms may include fatigue drowsiness hunger anxiety headache cold and clammy skin shaking like a coordination increased heart rate increase blood pressure numbness and tingling of the mouth tongue or lips confusion and rapid and shallow respirations ev Hypoglycemia
Caused by ephedrine a drug used as a bronchodilator an anti-asthma drug into relieve nasal congestion you can break down store glucagon and cause an elevation of blood glucose affects on the sympathetic nervous systemFatigue and increased urination incre Hyperglycemia
Potassium serum levels lower than 3.5 weakness numbness and tingling in the extremities muscle cramps nausea vomiting diarrhea decrease thousand irregular pulse weak pulse orthostatic hypertension disorientation Hypokalemia
Potassium Serum Level higher than 5.0 weakness muscle cramps diarrhea numbness in tingling slow heart rate low blood pressure decreased urine output and difficulty breathing , heart arrhythmia Sodium polystyrene sulfonate Hyperkalemia
When drugs pass the blood brain barrier that some drugs affect neurological functioning either directly or by alternating electrolyte or glucose levels beta blockersConfusion and delirium insomnia drowsiness hyperlexia hiipoLexia bizarre dreams hallucina CNS system Effects
Block the effects of the parasympathetic nervous system by directly or indirectly blocking cholinergic receptors atropine dry mouth altered his perception dysphasia heartburn constipation bloating paralytic ileus urinary hesitancy retention in potence blu Atropine anticholinergic effects
Drugs that directly or indirectly affect open mean levels in the brain can cause a syndrome that resembles Parkinsona??s disease many of the antipsychotic and neuroleptic drugs can cause this affect in most cases the effects go away when the drug is withd Parkinson's syndrome
Generally syndrome that includes high fever has a direct CNS effects and caused by general anestheticsSlowed reflexes rigidity involuntary movement hyper thermia autonomic disturbances hypertension fast heart rate and fever Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Anaphylactic cytotoxic serum sickness delayed allergic reaction Allergic reactions
Dermatological reaction stomatitis superinfection blood dyscrasia Tissue and organ damage
Liver injury renal injury poisoning Toxicity
Hypoglycemia hyperglycemia Alterations in glucose metabolism
Hypokalemia hyperkalemia Electrolyte imbalances
Ocular toxicity auditory damage Sensory effects
General CNS effects atropine like cholinergic effects Parkenson like syndrome neuroleptic malignant syndrome Neurological effects
Includes herb and other natural products found in ancient records. Not controlled or tested by the u.s food and drug administration basis of discovery of an active ingredient that is later developed into a medication Alternative therapy
Germ warfare , use of bacteria, viruses,and parasites Biological weapons
Comparison of the relative cost of the same drug provided by different manufacturers to determine the costs to the consumer Cost comparison
Uses of a drug that are not part of the stated thereputic indications for which the drug was approved by the FDA may lead to new indications for a drug Off label use
Patients self diagnosing and determining their own treatment needs Self care
Non prescription drugs with no known therapeutic use used to enhance mood or increase pleasure Street drugs
Caused cost of medical care and drugs to sky rocket in the last few years. Due to the demand to have the best possible most up to date and safest care and drug therapies Health care crisis
Provides a centralized building with participating physicians and services houses in one area. Consumers are often provided with all their health care at facility HMO
Mix with kitty litter or coffee groundsFlush down the toilet if instructions say so Return to pharmacy Disposal of meds
Lipoprotein structure that separates the interior of the cell from the external environment regulates what can enter and leave a cell Cell membrane
Lies within the cell membrane contains organelles for producing proteins energy and so on Cytoplasm
Movement of Saul lutes from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration across a concentration gradient Diffusion
Find network of interconnected channel is known as cisterene found in the cytoplasm side of chemical reactiona??s within the cell Endoplasmic reticulum
A series of flattened sacks in the cytoplasm that prepare hormones or other substances for secretion in may produce light sounds and store other synthesize proteins Golgi apparatus
Proteins found on the surface of the cell membrane they are determined by the genetic code and provide cellular identity as a self self Histocompatibility antigens
Encapsulated I just of enzymes found within a cell and they digest old or damaged areas of the cell and are responsible for destroying the cell in the membrane rupturea??s in the cell dies Lysomes
Site of protein production within a cell Ribosomes
Part of a cell that contains all genetic material necessary for cell reproduction in for the regulation of cellular production of proteins Nucleus
Structure composed of proteins lipids phospholipids glycolipids and cholesterol Lipoprotein
Basic structure of all living organisms Cell
Movement of water from an area of low salt low concentration to an area of high solid concentration in attempt to equalize the concentrations Osmosis
Resting phase G0
During this period the cell synthesizes substances needed for DNA formation that sells actively collecting materials to make these substances and producing the building blocks for DNA G1
The next phase involves the actual synthesis of DNA which is an energy consuming activity the cell remains in this phase until the amount of cellular S phase
During this phase the cell produces all of the substances required for the manufacture of the mitotic spindle G2 phase
During this phase the cell splits to form two identical daughter cells as a process called mitosis M phase

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