Patho Unit 1

Question Answer
Ribosomes RNA, protein synthesis
Endoplasmic Reticulum tubular channels, synthesis of proteins
Golgi Complex final packaging and processing
Mitochondria Generate ATP, energy for pumps pushing any molecule against the concentration gradient used for cellular energy requiring reactions, pumps (cells that lack oxygen, not enough ATP production) need ATP for active transport across membranes
Lysosomes sac like structures contain enzymes for digesting cellular substances, digestion
Peroxisomes sac like structures that produce hydrogen peroxide and detoxify waste products
Cytoskeleton bones and muscle, protein filaments including microtubules and actin
Caveolae Vaults Tiny indentations that can capture extracellular material and shuttle it inside the cell or across the cell.
What are 3 types of cell signaling 1. Contact signaling by plasma-membrane bound receptors2. Remote signaling by secreted molecules3. Contact signaling via gap junctions
Anabolism Uses Energy
Catabolism Releases/makes available energy
ATP molecule that stores and transfers energy(Used for most intracellular functions that require energy)
Phase 1 of cellular metabolism Digestion
Phase 2 of cellular metabolism Glycolosis
Phase 3 of cellular metabolism Citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle)
Atrophy Decrease in the size of cells, Results in reduced tissue mass
Hypertrophy Increase in cell size, Results in enlarged tissue mass
Hyperplasia Increased number of cells, Results in enlarged tissue mass
Metaplasia Mature cell type is replaced by a different mature cell type.
Dysplasia Cells vary in size and shape within a tissue
Anaplasia Undifferentiated cells, with variable nuclear and cell structures
Neoplasia “New growth”?commonly called tumor
Apoptosis Refers to programmed cell death (Normal occurrence in the body)
Ischemia Reduced blood supply
Hypoxia Reduced oxygen in tissues from lack of O2 in air, loss of Hgb or Hgb function, decreased production of RBCs, diseases of resp/cardio systems
How can physical damage to cells occur? Excessive heat or coldRadiation exposure
How can mechanical damage of cells occur? Pressure or tearing of tissue
What are two types of chemical toxins that can cause damage to cells and where do they come from? 1. Exogenous: from environment2. Endogenous: from inside the body
Microorganisms Bacteria and viruses
Abnormal metabolites Altered metabolism leads to accumulation of toxic compounds
What are two additional ways that damage can be caused to cells? 1. Nutritional deficits2. Imbalance of fluids or electrolytes
Liquefaction necrosis Dead cells liquefy because of release of cell enzymes
Coagulative necrosis Cell proteins are altered or denatured? coagulation
Fat necrosis Fatty tissue broken down into fatty acids
Caseous necrosis Form of coagulation necrosisThick, yellowish, “cheesy” substance forms
Infarction Area of dead cells as a result of oxygen deprivation
Gangrene Death of tissue from severe hypoxic injury-typically in lower legs and involves subsequent bacterial invasion.(Types: dry, wet, gas)
How many pairs of chromosomes do humans have? 23 pairs in humans
autosomes (how many pairs of chromosomes?) 22 pairs
What are the pair of sex chromosomes in a female and in a male? XX or XY
Karyotype Visual representation of chromosomes arranged in order of sizeUsed in diagnosis of chromosomal disorders
Genotype the genetic make up of a cell or individual
Phenotype the characteristics manifested by a person depending on genetic and environmental factor
Carrier a person hosting an infectious pathogen, who shows no signs of the disease, but could transmit the infection to others
Heterozygote two different allele
Homozygote two identical alleles
Mutation a change in the DNA of a cell, which will be inherited
Down syndrome -Trisomy 21-Risks increase with maternal age
Turner syndrome XO
Klinefelter syndrome XXY (Extra X chromosome is present)
What are the two compartments in which fluid is distributed between in the body? -Intracellular fluid (ICF) compartment-Extracellular fluid (ECF) compartment
Why is the balance of fluid between the ICF and the ECF essential? to maintain homeostasis
What is the percentage of water in the body of an adult? An infant? Adult: 60%Infant 70%
What type of person has lower water content? -Female-Obese-Older adults
What are some types of ECF? -Intravascular fluid (IVF) or blood-Interstitial fluid (ISF) -Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-Transcellular fluids
In what way does water move through compartments? Via: Hydrostatic pressure (pushes water) and Osmotic pressure (pulls water)
Hydrostatic pressure pushes water
Osmotic pressure pulls water

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