CELL ORGANELLES

Question Answer
CELL MEMBRANE/ PLASMA MEMBRANE Surrounds the cell, semi-permeable, and composed of proteins & lipids
NUCLEUS Controls all cell activities
GOLGI BODIES / GOLGI COMPLEX Folded membranes in cytoplasmInvolved in secretion & cellular transport
ENDOPLASMIC RECTICULUM Channels in the cytoplasm (connected to the nucleus) that bring materials (proteins) around the cell.ROUGH ER- Ribosomes attached to the surfaceSMOOTH ER – No ribosomes (creates & stores lipids & steroids)
MITOCHONDRIA Powerhouse of the cellSite of CELLULAR RESPIRATIONTakes in nutrients, breaks them down into ENERGY-RICH molecules for the cellProduce the ENERGY of the cell (ATP)
CYTOPLASM Jelly-like substance makes up much of the cell INSIDE the cell membraneContains organelles
RIBOSOMES Directly involved in protein synthesis
CENTRIOLES ANIMAL CELLS ONLYUsed for cell division
VACUOLES Storage for cell (nutrients, wastes…)Larger in Plant Cell (Fewer)Smaller in animal cells (many)
LYSOSOMES Damaged or old cell parts are destroyed by digesitive enzymes
NUCLEOLOUS Found inside of the nucleusRibosomes are FOUND here
CHLOROPLAST FOUND ONLY IN PLANTSSite of photosynthesisMostly found in leaves of plant
CELL WALL FOUND ONLY IN PLANTSRigid outer layer gives plants structure
ATP Adenosine Triphosphate = ENERGYHigh energy molecule that stores the energy we need to do ANYTHINGreleases energy when broken down into ADP
PHOTOSYNTHESIS The process by which GREEN plants & some other organisms use SUNLIGHT to "synthesize" foods from carbon dioxide & water.Carbon Dioxide + water -> Glucose + Oxygen + Water Vapor
PROKARYOTIC Simple cell, no membrane-bound organelles and free-flowing DNA. Bacteria are the most common example. NO NUCLEUS!
EUKARYOTIC Plant, animal, fungi, and protist cells,LARGER than prokaryotes, have organelles bound by membranes (like nuclei and mitochondria).
PLASMA MEMBRANE CELL MEMBRANE
RECEPTOR PROTEINS Attach to hormones and neurotransmitters for cell communications
TRANSPORT PROTEINS Move substances across the membranes
CYCLOSIS Movement of cytoplasm around the cell
NUCLEOLOUS Produces RIBosomes
NUCLEAR PORES Holes in the nuclear envelope for RNA and proteins to pass through
NUCLEAR ENVELOPE The membrane that surrounds the nucleus
SMOOTH ER Contains NO RIBosomes
ROUGH ER RIBosomes are attached
CELL THEORY 1. All living things are made up of cells2. All cells carry out their own functions3. All cells come from pre-existing cells
EXCEPTIONS TO THE CELL THEORY 1. Viruses2. Mitochondria & Chloroplasts (have own DNA)3. The FIRST cell
UNICELLULAR Made up of 1 cell (single celled organism)
MULTICELLULAR Made up of many cells functioning together
CELL Smallest Unit of structure & function in all living organisms
TISSUE Consists of specialized cells and their product
ORGAN Made up of different tissues, it is usually self-contained and has a vital function for the organism
ORGAN SYSTEM A group of organs that work together to form one or more functions.
ORGANISM An individual comprised of many organ systems to allow the organism to survive.

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