Biology Test 10-04 Osmosis/Diffusion/Cells and Viruses

What are the 3 parts of the cell theory? All organisms are made of organelles/cellsAll existing cells are produced by other cellsThe cell is the most basic unit of life
How did Hooke contribute to develop the cell theory? He was the first person to identify cells and name them.
How did Leeunwenhoek contribute to develop the cell theory? Observed live cells and observed greater detail of them.
How did Schleiden contribute to develop the cell theory? Concluded that plants were made up of cells.
How did Schwann contribute to develop the cell theory? He concluded that all animals and all living things were made of cells.
How did Virchow contribute to develop the cell theory? He proposed that all cells come from other cells.
What is the difference between a prokaryote and a eukaryote? Prokaryotes have no nucleus, smaller in size, and fewer organellesEukaryotes have a nucleus, larger in size, multicellular, and contain chloroplasts.
What are similarities between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? Both are cells, have DNA, cytoplasm, considered alive, single celled(pro is always single celled), CONTAIN CELL WALL AND MEMBRANE(in eukaryotes only plant cells have cell wall), and the cell theory applies to them.
How can you tell if a cell is prokaryotic or eukaryotic? IF IT HAS A NUCLEUS and if there are more specialized organelles.
What are the 2 main parts of a virus? A single strand of RNA or DNA and the protein coat that surrounds that.
How do Viruses reproduced? By infecting a host(cell) that has a matching receptor site. Uses “tail” to latch on to the host. (Spiky tail)
All are Viruses the same size and structure? No they are all very specific. The one thing they all have in common is the DNA OR RNA strand and a protein coat surrounding that.
What is a Capsid? Organelles? A capsid is the protein coat that surrounds the DNA OR RNA in a Virus.Organelles are the number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell.
What is the function of the mitochondria? Bean shaped organelle that supplies energy to the cell and has its own ribosomes and DNA.
What is the function of the Chloroplast? Converts solar energy into chemical energy.(For food) ONLY IN PLANTS
What is the function of the Smooth and Rough ER? Smooth ER: Breaks down drugs and alcohol/Makes lipids and lacks ribosomes Rough ER: Interconnected network of thin, folded membranes that produce process and distribute proteins/Have Ribosomes
What is the function of the Nucleus and Nucleolus? Nucleus: The store house for most of the cells DNA(Brain of cell)Nucleolus: Small dense region within the nucleus where ribosomes are produced.
What is the function of ribosomes? They link amino acids and make protein.
What is the function of lysosomes? Organelle that contains enzymes(Garbage Man)
What is the function of the cell membrane and wall? The cell wall gives protection and shape to plant cells, algae, fungi, and bacteria. The cell membrane forms a boundary between a cell and the surrounding environment.
What is the function of the chromatin? It is the material of which the chromosomes of organisms other than bacteria (i.e., eukaryotes) are composed. It consists of protein, RNA, and DNA.
What is the function of Golgi bodies(apparatus)? Contains enzymes that process, sort, and deliver proteins.
What structures are in animal cells only? Plant cells only? Animal cells have a centrosome and lysosomes while plant cells do not.Plant cells have a cell wall, a large central vacuole, chloroplasts, and other specialized plastids, whereas animal cells do not
What is the pathway taken by newly synthesized proteins in a cell? Rough ER —> ER to Golgi transport vesicles —> Golgi cisternae —> transport vesicles —> Exocystosis(Cell surface)
How do proteins get out of the cell? What organelles do they pass through? They go from the ER to the golgi bodies then to the cells surface. They pass by lysosomes and other organelles.
Characteristics of cells Cells are living, can reproduce on their own, Nucleaic Acid is found in Nucleus for eukaryotic cells, infections treated with anti bodies and non specific infections in the body.
Characteristics of viruses Viruses are non living, have a basic structure DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat, prevented by vaccines, reproduce with help of cell, DNA or RNA found in protein coat, and very specific to the host they infect.
Characteristics of cells and viruses. SIMILARITIES Can cause infections in the body. Are considered pathogen. And both contain nucleaic acid.
What is passive transport? 3 types? 1.Diffusion: Movement of substances HIGH TO LOW. 2. Osmosis: Movement of water HIGH TO LOW 3. Facilitated Diffusion: Movement of BIG substances HIGH TO LOW. NO ENERGY
What is Active Transport? 2 types? 1: Endocytosis(take in): Taking in of particles by engulfing them in the membrane. Two types of endocytosis-Phagocytosis(BIG SOLID MATERIALS) Pinocytosis(SMALL LIQUID OR DIZZOLVED MATERIALS) 2. Exocytosis: Removal of waste ENERGY REQUIRED
What is plasmolysis? A cell shrinking due to the solution being hypertonic
What is cytolysis? A cell bursting due to the solution being hypotonic?
What is a hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic solution? A hypertonic solution is a solution with more solute than water. A hypotonic solution is a solution with more water than solute. An isotonic solution is a solution with equal amounts of water and solute.
Whats an equilibrium? Equal water in cell and out of cell.
Whats the phosopholid bilayer? The phosphate group, the glycerol, and the 2 fatty acids that make up the cell membrane.
What is the protein channel? A channel inside the cell membrane that lets big molecules through.
What is osmotic pressure? The increased pressure that results from an increase of water.
What is homeostasis? When the cell membrane maintains balance.
What does concentration gradient mean? Difference in Concentration
How does the cell membrane maintain homeostasis? By passive transport. Ex. More water in cell than out of cell. Water will move out of cell to maintain balance.

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