3.3-3.4 vocab

Question Answer
passive transport movement of molecules across a cell membrane without energy input from the cell
diffusion movement of molecules in a fluid or gas from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
concentration gradient difference in the concentration of a substance from one location to another
osmosis when molecules move across a semipermeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration
isotonic has a solute concentration equal to the solute concentration inside a cell
hypertonic has a solute concentration higher than the solute concentration inside a cell
hypotonic has a solute concentration lower than the solute concentration inside a cell
facilitated diffusion diffusion of molecules across a membrane through transport proteins
active transport the movement of chemical substances, usually across the cell membrane, against a concentration gradient; requires cells to use energy
endocytosis the process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell
phagocytosis uptake of a solid particle into a cell by engulfing the particle
exocytosis the process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to the cell surface and the fuses with the membrane to let the substance out

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